morphology of a bird 
Fourth articulated bone of the foot, usually consisting of four phalanges.
Long bone fused to the fibula between the femur and the tarsus.
upper tail covert
Short feather covering the upper portion of the base of the tail; it maintains the body’s internal temperature.
under tail covert
Short feather covering the lower portion of the base of the tail; it maintains the body’s internal temperature.
Long stiff tail feather carried on the rump; it controls direction during flight.
Posterior portion of the body formed by the last vertebrae and bearing the tail feathers.
Ventral portion of the body between the breast and the tail.
Pointy hook-shaped structure attached to the terminal end of the toes; it allows the bird to anchor itself.
First articulated toe of the foot, usually made of a single phalange and pointing toward the back; it is also called the thumb.
Third articulated toe of the foot; it is long and usually consists of three phalanges.
Second articulated toe of the foot, usually consisting of two phalanges.
Portion of the limb formed of long bones and covered in scales; it connects the tibia to the toes.
Lateral portion of the body between the wing and the abdomen.
Upper posterior portion of the body between the head and the tail.
Flight appendage made of hollow bones and feathers, and comprising the forelimb; in some species, it is not adapted for flight.
Anterior portion of the body between the throat and the abdomen bearing the wings.
Short feather covering the upper portion of the base of the wing; it maintains internal body temperature.
Anterior lateral portion of the neck between the chin and the breast.
Portion of the head below the mandible.
Posterior portion of the neck below the head.
Corneous formation covering toothless jaws; the bird uses it to feed.