Representations of the Earth’s surface on a plane.
Results in a map that is not continuous but cut off, the divisions often placed in the middle of the oceans; it is used to represent the continents.
Obtained by projecting the Earth’s surface onto a cylinder; the meridians and parallels are thus straight lines intersecting at right angles.
Produced on a plane placed in such a way that it is tangent to a point on the Earth’s surface; it can represent only one hemisphere.
Obtained by projecting the Earth’s surface onto a cone whose base is a parallel; it can represent only a part of the globe.