Ice surface on which skaters execute their programs; program duration varies depending on the event (between 2 min. 40 sec. and 4 min. 30 sec.).
Individual who assists the referee and is authorized to replace him or her if necessary.
Individuals who oversee the training and preparation of skaters for competitions; coaches provide final advice prior to performances.
Official who ensures that technical installations are in compliance with the standards of the International Skating Union (ISU).
Official who is responsible for the eligibility of officials, skaters and the judging panel and the allowability of controversial decisions.
Person who monitors the length of performances to ensure that skaters respect the allotted time.
Officials who are responsible for evaluating performances; they award two series of marks for each performance, one for technical merit and the other for artistic interpretation.
Officials who are responsible for evaluating performances; during international competitions, nine judges are chosen at random from the nations represented.
Team formed of a man and a woman; like singles skaters, pairs take part in two events: the technical program and the free program.